Regional Infrastructure


All towns in the Gascoyne region use groundwater for domestic, commercial and horticultural purposes. There is no source of surface water available.Groundwater varies greatly in quality and quantity across the region. The Water Corporation operates and maintains water supplies to all towns in the Gascoyne region.

Carnarvon obtains water from groundwater aquifers in and around the Gascoyne River which flows intermittently. Treatment prior to consumption is simple chlorination; no filtration or other pre-treatment is necessary as the water is of very high quality in its raw state.

Exmouth obtains water from a lens of fresh water overlaying highly saline water beneath Cape Range. Pre-treatment of water includes fluoridation and chlorination. The water is hard and high in calcium.

Recycled wastewater is used in Carnarvon and Exmouth on parks, gardens and ovals.

Coral Bay and Denham have no suitable fresh water source and rely on artesian wells to deliver sufficient volume, water is desalinated using reverse osmosis. Denham has a dual water distribution system whereby consumers are provided with a quota of desalinated water for internal domestic use and a saline supply for toilets and external garden use.

Gascoyne Junction takes its water from the Gascoyne River aquifers in the near vicinity of the town. High salinity levels require the water to be desalinated using reverse osmosis and water is also put through an ultra filtration system to remove contaminates before being chlorinated and distributed to consumers.


All towns throughout the Gascoyne generate their own electricity through diesel, gas, or a combination of diesel and gas generation plant together with renewable energy. Horizon Power is the supply authority for the region. 

Carnarvon is served by the Mungallah Power Station which uses both diesel and gas fuelled generators. The 18MW power station has a firm capacity of 13.2MW and has been designed to ensure extra generation capacity can be installed. The network is supplemented by domestic and commercial solar power.

Exmouth is served by a gas fired power station which generates a firm capacity of 5.9MW. Exmouth Power Station is Horizon Power’s only compressed natural gas (CNG) power station. It has eight gas generators and two diesel generators, with the gas generators used to supply most of the load. Gas is trucked into the power station each day. Typically one gas truck is required each day during winter (when the load is low), but this can increase to two or three gas trucks a day in summer when the load is high. Horizon Power are currently progressing plans to exponentially increase renewable energy supply in Exmouth.

Coral Bay has a power station comprising seven low-load diesel engines generating a firm capacity of 1.5MW. Three 275kW wind turbines supplement supplies by up to 45%. When weather conditions are favourable, the power needs of the community can be met entirely by the wind turbines working together with the 576kW battery. Sophisticated control systems work to turn off all diesel power generation when renewable generation is sufficient, and then re-engage it when required.

Power supply in Gascoyne Junction is managed by Horizon Power via a series of diesel generators. Outside of the townsite, Horizon Power is not responsible for power supply. The firm capacity generated at the station is 243kW. A backup generator was installed by the Shire at the Gascoyne Junction tourist precinct to accommodated additional loads generated by tourists in peak periods. In 2020 the State government also partially funded ($152,500) a 50kW AC (PV) capacity solar energy system, with 240 solar panels that offsets the daytime power usage by up to 50% which has significantly reduced the financial sustainability of the tourist precinct. 

The system in Denham comprises three Enercon E-30 wind turbines (total capacity 690kW), two single low load diesels (250kW), four conventional diesel engines (1720kW total), a Dynamic Grid Interface (100kW) and the power station control system. The total firm capacity generated is 1.4MW. In late 2021 construction began on Horizon Power’s hydrogen project in Denham, Australia’s first renewable hydrogen energy plant within a remote microgrid. The build of the 704kW solar farm is underway to power an innovative hydrogen plant that will feature a 348kW electrolyser, hydrogen compression and storage and a 100kW fuel cell allowing the production and storage of hydrogen. The remote microgrid project will deliver electricity into the Denham hybrid power system and will generate 526MWh of renewable electricity per year, which is equivalent to the energy required to power 100 residential households in Denham annually.


Exmouth, Coral Bay and Denham are fully deep sewered. Carnarvon has a combination of deep and vacuum sewers in the majority of the town including the CBD, Brockman, Morgantown and parts of South Carnarvon. East Carnarvon and the bulk of South Carnarvon rely on septic or self contained treatment systems. Gascoyne Junction has no deep sewerage and all treatment and disposal is by way of septic tanks and leach drains.


Exmouth has an airport located at Learmonth Air Force base. Learmonth Airport can accommodate some of the largest aircraft flying today. There is also a small light aircraft strip between Learmonth and the town. Gascoyne Junction has a sealed airstrip suitable for light aircraft, including RFDS. Denham and Carnarvon have sealed airstrips which are suitable for turbo prop aircraft in the same class as the Fokker F50. Coral Bay has an airstrip suitable for light aircraft, including RFDS.

There are several hundred private light aircraft strips located at mine sites and pastoral leases throughout the Gascoyne region. Some have the capacity to take RFDS aircraft while most are used for aerial mustering.


Harbour infrastructure in the region varies widely, ranging from privately owned and operated salt loading facilities for bulk carriers to basic boat ramps.

Harbour facilities in the Gascoyne include:

  • Rio Tinto Dampier Salt private loading facility at Cape Cuvier
  • Small boat harbour at Carnarvon, used mainly by the fishing industry and includes a boat ramp used by recreational boaters
  • Denham Jetty
  • Shark Bay Salt loading facility at Useless Loop
  • Monkey Mia Jetty
  • Coral Bay Maritime Facility
  • Exmouth Boat Harbour
  • Learmonth private jetty at Exmouth
  • WAPET private jetty at Exmouth


Telecommunications infrastructure includes phones (landline), mobile phone services, internet access, broadcast radio and television services. Most towns within the region have access to a broad range of telecommunications services, however, service may be limited or intermittent in more remote locations.

Optus 4G mobile and internet infrastructure services Carnarvon, Denham and Exmouth.

Telstra 4G mobile and internet infrastructure services Carnarvon, Denham and Exmouth, with 3G service available in Gascoyne Junction.

Both Telstra and Optus have towers at intermittent locations between towns and at some tourist locations. For more coverage information refer to each providers coverage map.

Fixed line NBN is available in the CBD of Carnarvon, Denham and Exmouth, satellite NBN is available outside of the CBD, however, the quality of the service can be unreliable.